Medical Radioisotopes & Applications



ISOTOPE

HALF- LIFE

APPLICATIONS

Ac-225

 10.0d

 Monoclonal antibody attachment used for cancer treatment (RIT), also parent of Bi-213.

 Ac-227

 21.8y

 Parent of Ra-223 (Monoclonal antibody attachment used for cancer treatment (RIT).

 Am-241

 432y

 Osteoporosis detection, heart imaging.

 As-72

 26.0h

 Planar imaging, SPECT or PET.

 As-74

 17.8d

 Positron-emitting isotope with biomedical applications.

 At-211

 7.21h

 Monoclonal antibody attachment (alpha emitter) used for cancer treatment (RIT), used with F-18 for in vivo studies.

 Au-198

 2.69d

 Cancer treatment using mini-gun (B), treating ovarian, prostate, and brain cancer.

 B-11

 Stable

 Melanoma and brain tumor treatment.

 Be-7

 53.2d

 Used in berylliosis studies.

 Bi-212

 1.10h

 Monoclonal antibody attachment (alpha emitter) used for cancer treatment (RIT), cellular dosimetry studies.

 Bi-213

 45.6m

 Monoclonal antibody attachment (alpha emitter) used for cancer treatment (RIT).

 Br-75

 98m

 Planar imaging, SPECT or PET (C).

 Br-77

 57h

 Label radiosentizers for Te quantization of hypoxia in tumors, and monoclonal antibody labeling.

 C-11

 20.3m

 Radiotracer in PET scans to study normal/abnormal brain functions.

 C-14

 5730y

 Radiolabeling for detection of tumors (breast, et al.).

 Ca-48

 Stable

 

 Cd-109

 462d

 Cancer detection (C), pediatric imaging (C).

 Ce-139

 138d

 Calibrates high-purity germanium gamma detectors <medical application?>.

 Ce-141

 32.5d

 Gastrointestinal tract diagnosis, measuring regional myocardial blood flow.

 Cf-252

 2.64y

 Cervical, melanoma, brain cancer treatment.

 Co-55

 17.5h

 Planar imaging, SPECT or PET (B). Used in PET imaging of damaged brain tissue after stroke.

 Co-57

 272d

 Gamma camera calibration, should be given high priority, radiotracer in research and a source for X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

 Co-60

 5.27y

 Teletherapy (destroy cancer cells), disinfect surgical equipment and medicines, external radiation cancer therapy (E).

 Cr-51

 27.7d

 Medical, cell labeling and dosimetry.

 Cs-130

 29.2m

 Myocardial localizing agent.

 Cs-131

 9.69d

 Intracavity implants for radiotherapy.

 Cs-137

 30.2y

 Blood irradiators, PET imaging, tumor treatment.

 Cu-61

 3.35h

 Planar imaging, SPECT or PET (B).

 Cu-62

 4.7m

 Positron emitting radionuclide (B), cerebral and myocardial blood flow used As-a tracer in conjunction with Cu 64 (B).

 Cu-64

 12.7h

 PET scanning (C), planar imaging (C), SPECT imaging (C) dosimetry studies (C), cerebral and myocardial blood flow (C), used with Cu-62 (C), treating of colorectal cancer.

 Cu-67

 61.9h

 Cancer treatment/diagnostics, monoclonal antibodies, radioimmunotherapy, planar imaging, SPECT or PET.

 Dy-165

 2.33h

 Radiation synovectomy, rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

 Eu-152

 13.4y

 Medical.

 Eu-155

 4.73y

 Osteoporosis detection.

 F-18

 110m

 Radiotracer for brain studies (C), PET imaging (C).

 Fe-55

 2.73y

 Heat source <medical application?>.

 Fe-59

 44.5d

 Medical.

 Ga-64

 2.63m

 Treatment of pulmonary diseases ending in fibrosis of lungs.

 Ga-67

 78.3h

Imaging of abdominal infections (C), detect Hodgkins/non-Hodgkins lymphoma (C), used with In-111 for soft tissue infections and osteomyelitis detection (C), evaluate sarcoidiodis and other granulomaous diseases, particularly in lungs and mediastiusim (C).

 Ga-68

 68.1m

Study thrombosis and atherosclerosis, PET imaging, detection of pancreatic cancer, attenuation correction.

 Gd-153

 242d

Dual photon source, osteoporosis detection, SPECT imaging.

 Ge-68

271d

PET imaging.

 H-3

 12.3y

Labeling, PET imaging.

 I-122

 3.6m

Brain blood flow studies.

 I-123

 13.1h

Brain, thyroid, kidney, and myocardial imaging (C), cerebral blood flow (ideal for imaging) (C), neurological disease (Alzheimer's) (C).

 I-124

 4.17d

Radiotracer used to create images of human thyroid, PET imaging.

 I-125

 59.9d

Osteoporosis detection, diagnostic imaging, tracer for drugs, monoclonal antibodies, brain cancer treatment (I-131 replacement), SPECT imaging, radiolabeling, tumor imaging, mapping of receptors in the brain (A), interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy) for treatment of prostate cancer (E).

 I-131

 8.04d

Lymphoid tissue tumor/hyperthyroidism treatment (C), antibody labeling (C), brain biochemistry in mental illness (C), kidney agent (C), thyroid problems (C), alternative to Tl-201 for radioimmunotherapy (C), imaging, cellular dosimetry, scintigraphy, treatment of graves disease, treatment of goiters, SPECT imaging, treatment of prostate cancer, treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, treatment of melanoma (A), locate osteomyelitis infections (A), radiolabeling (A), localize tumors for removal (A), treatment of spinal tumor (A), locate metastatic lesions (A), treAt-neuroblastoma (A), internal (systemic) radiation therapy (E), treatment of carcinoma of the thyroid (E).

 I-132

 2.28h

Mapping precise area of brain tumor before operating.

 In-111

 2.81d

Detection of heart transplant rejection (C), imaging of abdominal infections (C), antibody labeling (C) cellular immunology (C), used with Ga-67 for soft tissue infection detection and ostemyelitis detection (C), concentrates in liver, kidneys (C), high specific activity (C), white blood cell imaging, cellular dosimetry, myocardial scans, treatment of leukemia, imaging tumors.

 In-115m

 4.49h

Label blood elements for evaluating inflammatory bowel disease.

 Ir-191m

 6s

Cardiovascular angiography.

 Ir-192

 73.8d

Implants or "seeds" for treatment of cancers of the prostate, brain, breast, gynecological cancers.

 Kr-81m

 13.3s

 Lung imaging.

 Lu-177

 6.68d

Heart disease treatment (restenosis therapy), cancer therapy.

 Mn-51

 46.2m

Myocardial localizing agent.

 Mn-52

 5.59d

PET scanning.

 Mo-99

 65.9h

Parent for Tc-99m generator used for brain, liver, lungs, heart imaging.

 N-13

 9.97m

PET imaging, myocardial perfusion.

 Nb-95

 35d

Study effects of radioactivity on pregnant women and fetus, myocardial tracer, PET imaging.

 O-15

 122s

Water used for tomographic measuring of cerebral blood flow (C), PET imaging (C), SPECT imaging.

 Os-191

 15.4d

Parent for Ir-191m generator used for cardiovascular angiography.

 Os-194

 6.00y

Monoclonal antibody attachment used for cancer treatment (RIT).

 P-32

 14.3d

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera (blood cell disease) and leukemia treatment, bone disease diagnosis/treatment, SPECT imaging of tumors (A), pancreatic cancer treatment (A), radiolabeling (A).

 P-33

 25d

Labeling.

 Pb-203

 2.16d

Planar imaging, SPECT or PET (used with Bi-212) (B), monoclonal antibody immunotherapy (B), cellular dosimetry.

 Pb-212

 10.6h

Radioactive label for therapy using antibodies, cellular dosimetry.

 Pd-103

 17d

Prostate cancer treatment.

 Pd-109

 13.4h

Potential radiotherapeutic agent.

 Pu-238

 2.3y

Pacemaker (no Pu-236 contaminants).

 Ra-223

 11.4d

Monoclonal antibody attachment (alpha emitter) used for cancer treatment (RIT).

 Ra-226

 1.60e3y

Target isotope to make Ac-227, Th-228, Th-229 (Parents of alpha emitters used for RIT).

 Rb-82

 1.27m

Myocardial imaging agent, early detection of coronary artery disease, PET imaging, blood flow tracers.

 Re-186

 3.9d

Cancer treatment/diagnostics, monoclonal antibodies, bone cancer pain relief, treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, treatment of prostate cancer, treating bone pain.

 Re-188

 17h

Monoclonal antibodies, cancer treatment.

 Rh-105

 35.4h

Potential therapeutic applications: target neoplastic cells (e.g., small cell lung cancer) (A), labeling of molecules and monoclonal antibodies (A).

 Ru-97

 2.89d

Monoclonal antibodies label (C), planar imaging (C), SPECT or PET techniques (C), gamma-camera imaging.

 Ru-103

 39d

Myocardial blood flow, radiolabeling mircospheres, PET imaging.

 S-35

 87.2d

Nucleic acid labeling, P-32 replacement, cellular dosimetry.

 Sc-46

 84d

Regional blood flow studies, PET imaging.

 Sc-47

 3.34d

Cancer treatment/diagnostics (F), monoclonal antibodies (F), radioimmunotherapy (F).

 Se-72

 8.4d

Brain imaging, generator system with As-72, monoclonal antibody immunotherapy.

 Se-75

 120d

Radiotracer used in brain studies, scintigraphy scanning.

 Si-28

 Stable

Radiation therapy of cancer.

 Sm-145

 340d

Brain cancer treatment using I-127 (D).

 Sm-153

 2.00d

Cancer treatment/diagnostics (C), monoclonal antibodies (C), bone cancer pain relief (C), higher uptake in diseased bone than Re-186 (C), treatment of leukemia.

 Sn-117m

 13.6d

Bone cancer pain relief.

 Sr-85

 65.0d

Detection of focal bone lesions, brain scans.

 Sr-89

 50d

Bone cancer pain palliation (improves the quality of life), cellular dosimetry, treatment of prostate cancer, treatment of multiple myeloma, osteoblastic therapy, potential agent for treatment of bone metastases from prostate and breast cancer (E).

 Sr-90

 29.1y

Generator system with Y-90 (B), monoclonal antibody immunotherapy (B).

 Ta-178

 9.3m

Radionuclide injected into patients to allow viewing of heart and blood vessels.

 Ta-179

 1.8y

X-ray fluorescence source and in thickness gauging (might be a good substitute for Am-241).

 Ta-182

 115d

Bladder cancer treatment, internal implants.

 Tb-149

 4.13h

Monoclonal antibody attachment used for cancer treatment (RIT).

 Tc-96

 4.3d

Animal studies with Tc-99m.

 Tc-99m

 6.01h

Brain, heart, liver (gastoenterology), lungs, bones, thyroid, and kidney imaging (C), regional cerebral blood flow (C), equine nuclear imaging (C), antibodies (C), red blood cells (C), replacement for Tl-201 (C).

 Th-228

 720d

Cancer treatment, monoclonal antibodies, parent of Bi-212.

 Th-229

 7300y

Grandparent for alpha emitter (Bi-213) used for cancer treatment (RIT), parent of Ac-225.

 Tl-201

 73.1h

Clinical cardiology (C), heart imaging (C), less desirable nuclear characteristics than Tc-99m for planar and SPECT imaging (C), myocardial perfusion, cellular dosimetry.

 Tm-170

 129d

Portable blood irradiations for leukemia, lymphoma treatment, power source.

 Tm-171

 1.9y

Medical.

 W-188

 69.4d

Cancer treatment, monoclonal antibodies, parent for Re-188 generator.

 Xe-127

 36.4d

Neuroimaging for brain disorders, research for variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and dementia, higher resolution SPECT studies with lower patient dose, lung imaging (some experts believe it is superior to Xe-133 in inhalation lung studies).

 Xe-133

 5.25d

Lung imaging (C), regional cerebral blood flow (C), liver imaging (gas inhalation) (C), SPECT imaging of brain, lung scanning, lesion detection.

 Y-88

 107d

Substituted for Y-90 in development of cancer tumor therapy.

 Y-90

 64h

Internal radiation therapy of liver cancer (C), monoclonal antibodies (C), Hodgkins disease, and hepatoma (C), cellular dosimetry, treating rheumatoid arthritis, treating breast cancer, treatment of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (A).

 Y-91

 58.5d

Cancer treatment (RIT), cellular dosimetry.

 Yb-169

 32d

Gastrointestinal tract diagnosis.

 Zn-62

 9.22h

Parent of Cu-62, a positron-emitter, used for the study of cerebral and myocardial blood flow.

 Zn-65

 244d

Medical.

 Zr-95

 64.0d

Medical.


  * Reference:

A = June 1996 SNM Abstracts

B = Holmes 91

C = Herac 89

D = Fairchild 87

E = Everyone's Guide to Cancer Therapy (Dollinger, Rosenbaum, Cable), 1991

F = SNM (Society of Nuclear Medicine)

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